Muscular Strength - refers to the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort. Muscle strength is measured during muscular contraction.
Muscular Endurance - is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time.
Aerobic Capacity- Another term used for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Anaerobic Capacity- A measure of anaerobic fitness; the maximal work performed in a short burst of high-intensity exercise. Anaerobic Exercise- Anaerobic means “in the absence of oxygen.” Anaerobic exercise is performed at an intensity so great that the body’s demand for oxygen exceeds its ability to supply it. Cardiovascular Fitness- The ability of the heart, blood vessels, blood, and respiratory system to supply fuel, especially oxygen, to the muscles and the ability of the muscles to utilize fuel to allow sustained exercise. Fast Twitch (FT) Muscle Fibers- The muscle fibers primarily used in anaerobic exercise or short, explosive exercise such as sprinting. Lactic Acid- Substance that results from the process of supplying energy during anaerobic exercise; a cause of muscle fatigue. Slow Twitch (ST) Muscle Fibers- Muscle fibers primarily used in aerobic or sustained, continuous exercise; also referred to as fatigue-resistant fibers. Active Stretch- Muscles are stretched by the active contraction of the opposing (antagonist) muscle. For example, when doing a calf stretch exercise, the muscles on the front of the shin contract to cause a stretch of the muscles on the back of the leg. Agonist Muscles- In this concept, agonist refers to the muscle group being stretched. Antagonist Muscles- In this concept, antagonist refers to the muscle group opposing (on the opposite side of the limp from the agonist) the group being stretched. Ballistic Stretch- Muscles are stretched by the force of momentum of a body part that is bounced, swung, or jerked.
Flexibility- Range of motion (ROM) in a joint or group of joints. Because muscle length is a major factor limiting the range of motion, those having long muscles that allow for good joint mobility are considered to have good flexibility. Passive Stretch- Stretch imposed on a muscle by a force other than the opposing muscle. For example: using another person, gravity, an object or another body part Range of motion (ROM)- The full motion possible in a joint Static Stretch- a muscle is slowly stretched and then held in that stretched position for several seconds